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Transient Over Voltages Analysis In Power System Engineering Essay

Transient Over Voltages Analysis In Power System Engineering Essay Transient over-voltage is one of fundamental driver for unscheduled br...

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Transient Over Voltages Analysis In Power System Engineering Essay

Transient Over Voltages Analysis In Power System Engineering Essay Transient over-voltage is one of fundamental driver for unscheduled break in power transmission and circulation frameworks including a keen lattice. A flood over-voltage because of lightning and exchanging activity brings about harms in an electrical force framework and frequently prompts power blackouts. Prescient figurings of over-voltages created by the lightning and the exchanging activity in the transmission and appropriation frameworks are generally basic for a conservative protection plan and a dependable activity of the transmission and conveyance frameworks. The transient over-voltage can be high recurrence, medium recurrence or low recurrence. The transient over-voltage is perilous to the two lines just as the associated gear and may make harm the hardware. This undertaking breaks down the transient at the heap in the wake of exchanging. This venture will talk about dissecting a transient over-voltages which is the reason and the impact of the transient over-voltages. The s trategy to unravel this transient over-voltages additionally been talked about in this undertaking. The PSCAD reenactment is utilized for the transient examination in this task to structure the force framework circuits. Issue Statement Voltage transient in Electric Power System seem a few unsettling influences, some of the time perilous for the electrical hardware life, for nature and for the human life. Exchanging transient marvels produce in Power Systems over-voltages, over-flows and electrical fields, which havent to disregard. In this manner was demonstrating and mimicked the exchanging transient wonders, thusly the electric fields and the conceivable negative impact about electrical hardware, condition and human life. Voltage transient in power framework are cause by exchanging activity, lightning and blames in the framework. The over-voltages can be perilous to both the lines just as the associated hardware and may make harm the gear. Motivation behind this task is to break down the transient over-voltages at the heap and to distinguish the technique to lessen the impact of transient over-voltages. 1.2 Project Objective The goal of this undertaking is as per the following: Recognize the impact and the reason for transient over-voltages and furthermore the technique to tackling transient over-voltages. Reenact the transient over-voltages at the heap subsequent to exchanging and structure the force framework circuits by utilizing PSCAD recreation. Examine the outcome subsequent to exchanging and after use pre-inclusion resistor. 1.3 Project Scope So as to accomplish the goal of this undertaking, there are a few degrees had been sketched out as follows: Investigation on the circulation framework. Producing the transient over-voltages waveform by utilizing PSCAD reenactment. The investigation is simply centering into transient over-voltages that happen as a result of the exchanging capacitor. Part 2 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction Voltage drifters in power frameworks are brought about by exchanging activities, lightning and blames in the framework. Various wonders make various kinds of homeless people. Oscillatory homeless people are caused principally by exchanging wonders in the system. The most widely recognized exchanging activity is capacitor bank exchanging. The most serious homeless people are brought about by capacitor empowering while capacitor de-stimulating just aims a minor transient. Oscillatory drifters are described by length, extent and otherworldly substance. There are subclasses of oscillatory homeless people contingent upon the prevailing recurrence. In this undertaking it will more concentrate on exchanging gadgets. 2.2 Power System Electric force framework is a significant piece of the foundation of present day society. The force framework today is perplexing interconnected system. Electric force framework is the framework that can change and change the type of the vitality into electrical vitality and transmit it to shopper. Innovation today despite everything can't store the power that has been delivered. The electrical vitality possibly produce when required or it will use after it is created. As the impact, the administration on the power turns out to be hard and troublesome. The force framework might be partitioned into the four significant subsystems which are Generation subsystem, Transmission subsystem, Distribution subsystem and use subsystem. Figure 2.1 shows the force framework that separated into age, transmission and conveyance. Figure 2.1: The Electric Power System 2.2.1 Generation Subsystem There are two significant parts in the age framework which is generators and transformers. For generators, a fundamental part of intensity frameworks is the three stage rotating current, air conditioning, generator known as coordinated generator or alternator [1]. The wellspring of the mechanical force, regularly known as the main player, might be water powered turbines, steam turbines whose vitality originates from the consuming of coal, gas and atomic fuel, gas turbines, or once in a while interior ignition motors consuming oil [1]. Some substitute sources utilized are sun oriented force, geothermal force, wind power, flowing force and biomass. The force transformer move power with high productivity starting with one degree of voltage then onto the next level [1]. The transformer is been utilized to step up or step down the voltage. Protection necessities and other pragmatic structure issues limit the created voltage to low esteem, generally 30 kV. The progression up is utilized for transmission of intensity. At the less than desirable finish of the transmission lines, step down transformers are utilized to diminish the voltage to appropriate qualities for circulation or use. The power in an electric force framework may experience four or five changes among generator and shoppers [1]. 2.2.2 Transmission Subsystem An overhead transmission organize move electric force from creating units to the circulation framework which at last supplies the heap. It additionally interconnects neighboring utilities which permit the financial dispatch of intensity inside areas during ordinary conditions, and the exchange of intensity between districts during crises. The system that interconnected between the utilities and burden is called framework lattice [2]. The transmission line can be sorted into two classifications which are high voltage transmission line and sub transmission line framework. The contrast between these two frameworks is in the voltage where for the high voltage, the level for transmission line voltage can arrive at 500kV and for sub transmission are in the middle of 69kV to 138kV. All the transmission will be ended at the substation [1]. 2.2.3 Distribution Subsystem The circulation framework associates the appropriation substations to the shoppers administration entrance hardware. The voltage for this sort of framework has been diminished by utilizing step down transformer from 66 kV to 22 kV and underneath. The optional appropriation arrange decreases the voltages for usage by business and private shoppers. Lines and links not surpassing two or three hundred feet long at that point convey capacity to the individual buyers. The optional appropriation serves a large portion of the clients at levels of 240 V for single stage and 415 V for three stages. Circulation frameworks are both overhead and underground. The development of underground dispersion has been very quick and as much as 70 percent of new private development is through underground frameworks [1]. 2.2.4 Utilization Subsystem The utilities framework or force framework loads are separated into three principle classifications which are modern, business and private. Mechanical burdens are composite burdens and enlistment engines structure a high extent of these heaps [1]. These composite burdens are elements of voltage and recurrence and structure a significant piece of the framework load [1]. Then again, business and private burdens comprise to a great extent of lighting, warming, cooling and cooking [1]. These heaps are autonomous of recurrence and expend unimportantly little receptive force [1]. The heap changes for the duration of the day and force must be accessible to shoppers on request. The every day load bend of an utility is a composite of interest made by different classes of clients. The best estimation of burden during 24 hour time span is known as the pinnacle or most extreme interest [1]. 2.3 Transient Over-voltages Transient is an abrupt increment in current or voltage in a circuit that can harm touchy segments and instruments. Transient overvoltages are a voltage top with a most extreme length of short of what one millisecond. It tends to be high, medium, or low recurrence. Transient overvoltages on power framework are because of different causes and can be characterized into two principle classes, outside and inner overvoltages [3]. Normal overvoltages on low voltage systems are brought about by direct lightning strikes. Lightning is an outside overvoltage. The elevated level of vitality contained in an immediate lightning strike on a lightning conductor or an overhead low voltage line prompts extensive harm of the establishment. The overvoltages can be more than multiple times the ostensible voltage. Working or exchanging overvoltages connected to a systems gear make overvoltages of a lower level 3 to multiple times the ostensible voltage however happen considerably more every now and again, consequently causing untimely maturing of the hardware. Exchanging overvoltages is an inward overvoltage. Transient overvoltages are commonly oscillatory and appear as a damped sinusoid. The recurrence of these overvoltages may fluctuate from a couple hundred Hz to a couple of kHz and it is represented by the innate capacitances and inductances of the circuit. 2.2 Switching Capacitor Gear containing electronic exchanging segments is additionally liable to produce electrical aggravations practically identical to over-voltages. The outcomes of which on touchy hardware, but not obvious, are no less inconvenient: untimely maturing and erratic or momentary breakdowns. Working over-voltages are created when receptive or capacitive gear is turned here and there. Moreover, interfering with industrial facility creation, lighting or transformers can

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Freedom of Expression in India

Opportunity of articulation in India Our homeland is everything for us and regardless of how far we are from our country, we feel associated with our nation genuinely just as profoundly. We appreciate and commend the accomplishments and improvements of our nation with satisfaction. At whatever point we notice any positive turn of events or urbanization, we feel glad to be the piece of our nation. At the point when we reserve the privilege to praise the accomplishments of our nation, we additionally reserve the option to scrutinize the adverse turn of events and unscrupulous activities.As the resident of our nation we reserve the option to cast a ballot and choose the individual who we trust for the government assistance of normal open and the nation. Any nation is spoken to by its kin and each resident is essential and significant as we as a whole join and set up a great country. At the point when we notice that our legislators are accomplishing something extremely incredible for our nation , we reward them by reappointing them in coming races , we make them our preferred pioneer and we frequently spread there melodies of triumph to our companions and society . The political pioneers are liable to us, there responsibility and there conduct relies upon there actions.We individuals are likewise limited by rules and guidelines, lawfulness ought to be relevant for everybody. Lawfulness is fair-minded and authentic, the guilty party gets discipline and the honest gets rewards. Well things ought to be leveled out of law and we as a whole need to work decidedly for the advancement of our country. Be that as it may, things become counterfeit when the peace favors the persuasive and influential individuals, other than submitting a huge number of missteps the amazing guilty parties are not rebuffed and then again the normal man is rebuffed each and every second for his one mistake.Thousands of instances of incredible representatives and government officials are pending a nd documents are shut with the token of cash yet at the same time the regular man has no option to speak more loudly against defilement. The media gatherings and huge media houses are additionally amazing and compelling and they have the ability to uncover and reveal the debasement and the degenerate individuals however would they say they are truly doing equity to the average folks? Well basic man can be handily rebuffed for a solitary comment or remark as the regular man is weak and the privilege of the right to speak freely of discourse is grabbed from his hands by the degenerate heads who need to hear what there ears like.On the other hand the media can't be rebuffed effectively as the government officials and the incredible representative are additionally reliant on media for notoriety and fame. The vast majority of the mystery undertakings and debasement tricks are avoided open, they ought to be revealed however again everything relies upon media and its filling in as media is enormously commanded and impacted by the incredible degenerate substances. The basic man will stay a typical man, he may get a large number of rights in the books however in all actuality he is destined to endure.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

Studying Abroad

Studying Abroad Exactly one year ago, I was getting ready to leave the country for the first time ever and spend the fall semester as an exchange student in England. So, in honor of this study-abroad-iversary, I’d like to give a brief but well-deserved shout-out to Norwich and the good friends I made there at the University of East Anglia. When people ask me about my time abroad, I usually tell them this: I studied English and American Literature for a semester in Norwich, England,  at the University of East Anglia  (UEA), and then I spent about three weeks backpacking through Western Europe. It totaled at about  four months living abroad. It was awesome, and Im so, so grateful. Its also an opportunity not  everyone can have  (for financial reasons or because of their course of study), but its worth it if you can figure out a way how. There are study abroad opportunities ranging from one week to a whole year and a decent amount of  available scholarships and aid. Norwich has more medieval churches than any city in Western Europe north of the Alps. Thats one of them behind me! I loved studying abroad for a lot of reasons. One of them was the actual studying. The academic experience was very graduate student-esque. My classes were almost all seminar style with a lot of independent study and longer in duration (2-3 hours) but only met once or twice a week. Ultimately, school during most of the semester could be as intense or as lackadaisical as I wanted because my grades were based solely  on a final paper or a final paper and a midterm. I ended up getting a little more lackadaisical than Id hoped and jammed a LOT of reading into the final few weeks of school, which I do regret and would not recommend. If you ever want to feel like that kid in The Sixth Sense (i.e., “I see dead people” ?), drink four cups of Earl Grey at 3 a.m. and then write a critical analysis of Middle English texts. Or maybe dont because youre a wiser, less procrastinating student than I. Still, I loved sitting in class with just five or six other students and really getting into a text. It was fun and mind-broadening to experience the opinions of people who grew up across the world and hadnt taken the exact same sequence of English courses right alongside me. We were very different people, and different was great in a debate about poetry or Gothic fiction. Plus, reading a medieval text in the actual medieval city where it was written? Then getting to touch the actual original manuscript on a class field trip? Surreal, to say the last, and maybe education at its very coolest. I also loved the people I met. My friends and I in front of Norwich Cathedral! Half the learning you do abroad isnt even in the classroom, and half of the learning I did was with these people. Let me tell you, nervousness at being alone in a new country and at a new school will make you eager to make friends. But in my case, these werent just bum friends to keep the loneliness away. These were the real deal. We laughed together. We proofread each others papers. We traveled on weekends and after the semester ended. And we had genuine, through-the-Scottish-countryside, under-the-English-Channel, OH-NO-WERE-GONNA-MISS-OUR-FLIGHT adventures. We even wore matching Christmas jumpers. Real friends wear reindeer. Another thing Ive heard about study abroad (even from my mom, who studied abroad while she was an Illinois student) is that studying abroad teaches you how to impress yourself. You dont think you can navigate in a country where you dont know the language, or figure out how to hail a cab, or make it to the train in time, but you do. And you do it over and over again until youre a braver, better, more resourceful person. And I think we all became braver and better together. To this day, we maintain a Facebook group chat and swap adventures from our normal lives back home, but we have plans to meet up again soon. Love to Norwich, love to my friends, and love to you when you brave it across the pond or wherever your wanderlust takes you! Want to know more about study abroad? Click here! Maggie Class of 2017 After starting my time at Illinois Undeclared in the Division of General Studies, I’m majoring in English and Economics with a minor in Informatics from the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. I’m from the relatively small town of Manhattan, Illinois.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Hispanic Migrant Politics And The Homeland Security State...

Alfonso Gonzales provides a riveting and detailed work of Latino migrant politics and the homeland security state. Migration control date back to the mid-20th century. The author presents the actions taken by â€Å"pro-immigrant† groups to counter the hegemonic institutions that criminalize our communities. The book draws on political theory and field research with numerous activists, deportees, and policy makers across the country ranging from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. and abroad (Mexico and El Salvador). Gonzales argues that Latinos face a multidimensional form of political power he coins â€Å"anti-migrant hegemony,† that secures a legitimization for state violence against migrants through a race-neutral dialog regarding crime and combating terrorism. Gonzales presents an array of agents that have a stake in migrant politics and the Homeland Security State. The book ends with discussing how Latino migrant activists and their allies could change the contemporary reality faced by millions of Latinos living in the shadows and ultimately help democratize the United States. The book starts by presenting the complex interaction between Latinos and institutions. He argues that between 2001 and 2012, Latino migrant activists and their allies could not gain momentum following short-term victories because they are against an anti-migrant hegemony. Chapter 1 opens with The Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act (HR 4437) also known as the SensenbrennerShow MoreRelatedIllegal Migration Is The United States1531 Words   |  7 Pagesperiods: the peopling of the original colonies, westward expansion during the middle of the 19th century, and the rise of cities at the turn of the 20th century. The fourth peak period began in the 1970s and continues today†. 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After he obtained the social security card in the mail, he went to a well known company and applied for a job as aRead MoreProstitution Is The Act Of Sexual Services3065 Words   |  13 Pagesships reached the United States brothel houses. There are many types of prostitution. The two main ones are called pimp controlled prostitution and brothels. Brothels are homes to prostitutes and have a main lady called the madam. Interactions with clients and prostitutes are usually restricted and limited. Brothels usually contain 225-250 prostitutes in their homes. The other common form of prostitution is pimp-controlled prostitution, which is common here in the United States. Pimp controlled prostitutionRead MoreA Research Project On Immigration Detention Centers9708 Words   |  39 PagesRequirements for the Degree of: Bachelor of Science in Homeland Security and Emergency Management May 2017 By Hugh H. Scully II Instructor: James Sytsma â€Æ' SENIOR RESEARCH PROJECT APPROVAL FORM I certify that I have read the project of Hugh H. Scully II entitled instructions for the preparation of the Senior Research Project and that, in my opinion; it is satisfactory in scope and quality for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Homeland Security and Emergency Management at National University. Read MoreA Historical Analysis Of The Immigration Policy3994 Words   |  16 Pagesto the United States. Today, immigration policy is a heavily debated topic under swaying American attitudes. A country, once immigrants themselves, has become increasingly critical of the economic and safety concerns brought by immigrants. As America developed as a county in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, immigration was a common occurrence and given little thought by the government. Naturalization was acquired by residing in the country for two years and individual states controlled the

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Human Trafficking Is Wrong And Irrational - 1125 Words

A girl named Jessi was walking down the streets of Reno City, homeless after being discharged from the army. Soon, she began using drugs, and her drug dealer told her to prostitute to make money. This is a problem today around the world. Women think it’s okay to be a prostitute because it earns them money. Well, it’s the total opposite of that, according to victims of this terrible wrongdoing. Human trafficking is wrong and irrational, because it publicly embarrasses women, causes problems in their life, and can end up killing the females if it is continued. Prostitution is a lot more than it seems to be. Prostitution is known as the â€Å"world’s oldest profession† and involves the sexual exploitation of women or children. Many victims of the horrible business are forced to â€Å"sell† their bodies to men and women for sexual relations. Over a hundred years ago, sex trade was tolerated and was allowed on the streets of American cities. Today, this practice is done throughout the U.S., despite it being illegal in forty-nine states. However, many violators of this law are never arrested for the crimes they committed. They kidnap or recruit women and adolescents for this industry, because these are the most vulnerable. There are different reasons why these individuals are pressured into morbid acts like this. Some factors that affect the decision to make people prostitutes can be as simple as unemployment and wanting money. Most women go into sex trafficking because of drugs, shelter,Show MoreRelatedIs Violence ever justified1043 Words   |  5 PagesViolence, the act of causing physical harm to another person willingly, has often been categorized as being an uncivilized, unjustified act. It is mostly known, and commonsensical knowledge that attacking or inflicting harm upon another person is â€Å"wrong†. Most of us frown upon people who resort to such violent acts, and they are punishable by law. 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Some emotional drives are irrational, such as violence in the heat of the moment; some psychological drives are irrational such as a mania (e.g. kleptomania, pyromania). I would not live in a society where crime rates are low because of extreme punishments. Punishment should fit the crime. Punishment doesn’t always deter criminalsRead MoreImmigration Reform and Illegal Immigrants Essay1559 Words   |  7 Pagesdemeaning job or a labored extensive place of employment. For example, the construction business is on the rise without enough workers to give a much-needed service. Yet some americans dont have the skill to do such jobs in construction. Although this irrational thought of job heist are untrue, when in comparison some Americans would refuse to work at underpaid or minimum wage job. Instead they would rather not but rather stay home compared to work at and meat factory plant or fast food restaurant. TheRead MoreA Male Dominant Society1816 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to a recent survey (Human rights group 2009): †¢ there are around 40 million prostitutes at work around the globe †¢ in 22 countries around the world the ‘profession of prostitution is not only legal but is also regulated. †¢ 1 in 10 men around the world have purchased a prostitute †¢ In Thailand the sex industry is estimated to be around $35 billion †¢ In US around 80,000 individuals are arrested due to charges of soliciting sex †¢ There is a $58 billion sex trafficking industry around the globeRead MoreThe Death Penalty Research Paper2122 Words   |  9 Pagescrimes. However the death penalty is inhumane and should be abolished in the United States. The death penalty has been around since the beginning of civilization. â€Å"Capital Punishment has been practiced in most known societies over the course of humans history† (Garland 30). The website Introduction to the Death Penalty states that the death was first established for 25 different crimes, however, over the years the laws have changed. Fortunately, only one-third of the world still uses this typeRead MoreMoral Studies3796 Words   |  16 Pages†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13 5. References †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦... 14 What is moral value? Moral Value is an understanding of how, why, and to what extent humans should value things, whether it is a person, idea, object, or anything else. Moral value emphasizes philosophy of â€Å"good†, â€Å"accurate† and â€Å"wise† responsibility of a human in current society. 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If she would’ve locked it up safely, she and the Sandy Hook Elementary School kids and staff wouldn’t be murdered. Make gun owning and gun trafficking a felony, is my proposal. Like I’ve mentioned before, during the gun ban, that lasted 10 years, there were less mass shootings. I’m not saying this would prevent all shootings from happening, but it would be a step in the right direction. AnotherRead MoreWhy Guns Should Be Banned9315 Words   |  38 Pagesvery dangerous to keep around children. I’ve heard that Adam Lanza’s mother didn’t keep her gun locked up. If she would’ve locked it up safely, she and the Sandy Hook Elementary School kids and staff wouldn’t be murdered. Make gun owning and gun trafficking a felony, is my proposal. Like I’ve mentioned before, during the gun ban, that lasted 10 years, there were less mass shootings. I’m not saying this would prevent all shootings from happening, but it would be a step in the right direction. Another

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Aging Process Free Essays

The first article I chose to read was about grief, and how to cope with it. The loss of a loved one cause’s great stress can temporarily interfere with concentration, decision making, and work performance. With enough support and help, grief can promote personal growth of all of those involved in the process. We will write a custom essay sample on Aging Process or any similar topic only for you Order Now According to this article, grief can be triggered by extreme isolation, depression, or other additive behaviors. Other indicators that show one who is dealing with grief may include quick replacement of the lost relationship or avoidance of any reminder of or imitation of the deceased. Many people who experience these symptoms need some sort of intervention by health care professionals. According to this article, there are many different types of grief that one can experience. These types include chronic grief, delayed grief, exaggerated grief, masked grief, and disenfranchised grief. Chronic grief begins as â€Å"normal grief,† but instead of going away, it continues for a very long time. Some people tend to define themselves by their losses, which leads to the development of chronic grief. Delayed grief is when a survivor consciously or unconsciously holds back their feelings in order to avoid pain, such as avoiding discussion of the deceased, or working too much. In masked grief, the survivor is not aware that their response to grief is getting in the way of them performing daily functions. One who is experiencing this may refuse help. Disenfranchised grief can occur when a survivor can’t fully acknowledge the loss of a loved one because the relationship may be considered unacceptable. Those who experience this type of grief may be those who are gay or lesbian partners. There have been many studies done on the effects of care giving to those who are going through grief and loss. In a recent study, 129 spouse care givers were asked to rate their levels of care giving. Those who had little or no involvement in the care of a terminally ill spouse were found to be at higher risk for complicated grief than those with greater involvement. The next article I read was also about coping with grief and loss. This article states that over the past 30 years, health care professionals have shown an increase in interest in the issues related to grief. There have been many different studies done on grief and loss, some of which have the same conclusions and others that differ in outcomes. However, in spite of these varied findings, it seems to be that following the death of a loved one, there tends to be an increase in headaches, dizziness, trembling, etc. It has been recommended that these symptoms can be signs of grief. There has also been an interest on whether or not people who are going grieving a loss require more psychiatric care during their mourning period. There have been few studies done to show some answers, but data is inconclusive. This article defines grief as one who was experienced the loss of a loved one to death. This article also explains that when someone experiences the loss of an important person, there is a tendency for that person to feel helpless, like they are unable to exist without that person. Some may also have mixed emotions of sadness and anger. Aside from the emotional responses to grief, there are also physical features that accompany grief. Some of these features are tightening of the chest, hollowness of the stomach, tightness in the throat, and lack of energy. This article states the order in which grief tends to happen; disbelief, confusion, preoccupation, sense of presence, and hallucinations. There are also a variety of different behaviors that are associated with grief reactions. These can go from sleep deprivation, and loss of appetite, to social withdrawal. Although these articles both discuss grief and loss, they differ in certain ways. The first article talked more about the different types of grief, and described the characteristics of them individually. The first article also discussed the effects of a person who is not involved in care giving to their loved on who is terminally ill. I felt that the second article talked more about the most basic type of grief in full detail. The second article, as opposed to the first article, went into detail about the physical features that also accompany grief. I also think that the second article talked about more broad concepts of grief, where as the first article was more specific in its focus on grief. I really enjoyed the articles that I read. I aspire to become a grief and loss counselor one day, so I felt that these articles really pertained to what I am interested in. I think that they explained things very easy, in words that I could actually comprehend. I believe that grief and loss counselors are very important in society; everyone at some point will lose someone they love, and may need the special support of a professional. I also found this topic to be of relevance because my best friends’ father just passed away about a month ago. I have been helping her mourn and go through the grieving process. Reading these articles made me realize things that I have been doing correct, and maybe some things that I could try to do better to help her through this very hard time. I think that these articles clearly defined grief, and all of the components that go along with it. I feel that everyone should read an article on how to help one cope with grief, just because mourning is a process that is all to common. Helping one get through these times is something that we can all improve upon. As much as I did enjoy both articles, I found my self more intrigued in the second article. It was a bit longer in length, and was very detailed. I think that the second article talked about a lot of different topics associated with grief and loss, where as the first article really just talked about the book definition of grief, and how to cope. How to cite Aging Process, Essays

Friday, May 1, 2020

Financial Management Theory and Practice Limited

Question: Discuss about the Financial Management for Theory and Practice Limited. Answer: Introduction This paper addresses various crucial aspects of financial management which helps in analyzing the financial performance of a firm and preparing estimations and budgets (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2016). The current paper has been divided into five sub-headings such as financial analysis, operating revenue prediction, interest on loan, choosing investment funds, and bond valuation. The financial analysis has been carried out on the financial statements of Boral Limited, which is engaged in manufacture and supply of building material primarily in Australia and the United States. The company is listed on the Australian stock exchange. Financial Analysis of Boral Limited The financial analysis of Boral Limited carried out here covers financial statements for the year 2016 and 2015. The ratio analysis has been considered to be the most appropriate tool for financial analysis of Boral Limited (Tracy, 2012). The process comprising five steps such as liquidity analysis, asset management analysis, Debt management analysis, profitability analysis, and market value analysis have been followed in conducting the ratio analysis. Liquidity Analysis It refers to the companys ability to pay the short term debt on time. The short term debt here implies the current liabilities which consist of trade payables, expenses payables, and the short term borrowings. The ability of the company to pay short term debt is adjudged based on the sufficiency of the current assets and the sufficiency of the current assets is analyzed by current and quick ratio (Tracy, 2012). The current ratio is computed by dividing the current assets with the current liabilities. The quick ratio is computed in the same manner except that the current assets here do not include inventories (Tracy, 2012). In the case of Boral Limited, the current ratio for the financial year 2015 and 2016 has been found to be 1.89 times and 1.43 times (appendix). It could be observed that the current ratio of the company is falling down in the current year as compared to the previous year. The downfall in the current ratio clearly indicates that the current assets of the company are decreasing relative to its current liabilities. Further, the quick ratio also went down from 1.30 times in 2015 to 0.95 times in the year 2016 depicting that the company is facing problems with liquidity (Appendix). Asset Management Analysis Analyzing the efficiency of management to convert the assets into sales or use the assets effectively to generate sales falls under asset management analysis. The prominent ratios such as asset turnover, inventory holding days, and accounts receivables days are computed to analyze the efficiency of management in regard to asset management (Tracy, 2012). The asset turnover ratio depicts revenues per $ of total assets deployed in the business. The inventory turnover days depicts the time period for which the inventory is usually held in the go-down by the company and accounts receivable days depicts the credit period extended by the company to its customers to pay their dues (Tracy, 2012). In the current case of Boral Limited, asset turnover ratio has been found to be 0.73 times in 2015 and 0.74 times in the year 2016 (Appendix). This indicates that the company was earning revenues of $0.73 by utilizing $1 of total assets in the year 2015 which slightly improved to $0.74 in the current year. Further, the inventory holding days were found to be 65 days in 2015 and 69 days in 2016 (Appendix). Increment by 4 days in the inventory holding period is indicative of inefficiencies of the management in managing inventory. On the other hand, the accounts receivable days were found to be decreasing by 3 days in the current year. The accounts receivable days were 56 days in 2015 which reduced to 53 days in 2015. The decrease in the accounts receivable days indicates improvement in the managements efficiency. Debt Management Analysis The debt management is one of the most important aspects of business. The recklessness in debt management could hamper the companys business severely and endanger its solvency. This is the reason that the investors first look into the debt management of the company before analyzing the profitability (Tracy, 2012). In order to analyze the efficacy and effectiveness of the debt management, two most important ratios such as debt equity ratio and Interest Times ratio have been calculated and analyzed. In the current case of Boral Limited, the debt equity ratio has been found to be 0.66 times in 2015 and 0.65 times in 2016. Thus, it could be observed that there has been slight decrease in the debt equity ratio in the current year as compared to the previous year. The decrease in the debt equity ratio depicts that the company is using less debt as compared to equity in financing its business. However, ideally, it is considered that the company should not use more than $0.33 of debt against the $1 of equity. In the current case of Boral Limited, the debt to equity ratio is much more than the ideal one, thus, the risk of solvency could be higher. Further, the Interest Times ratio was observed to be 4.60 times in 2015 and increasing slightly it reached to 4.91 times in the year 2016. The increment in the Interest Times ratio depicts that the companys ability to repay the debt has improved. Profitability Analysis The analysis of profitability is considered to be the decisive factor for the investor in taking an investment decision. In order to analyze the profitability of the business, two most crucial ratios such as net margin and return on equity are taken for computation and analysis (Tracy, 2012). In the current case of Boral Limited, the net margin ratio has been found to be 5.98% and 5.94% in the year 2015 and 2016 respectively (Appendix). It could be observed that the net margin has dropped slightly in the 2016 as compared to the previous year. The drop in net margin ratio depicts downfall in the profitability of the company. Further, the return on equity was found to be 7.29% and 7.30% for the year 2015 and 2016 respectively (Appendix). This implies that the return on equity has improved a bit in the current year. It could be observed that despite downfall in the net margin ratio, the return on equity has improved in the current year. This implies that the improvement in the return on equity was due to reduction in the shareholders equity in the current year. The shareholders equity reduced from $3,524.10 in 2015 to $3,506.30 in the year 2016 (Appendix). Market Value Analysis The market value analysis covers evaluation of the stocks price of the company. The evaluation in regard to the price of the stock is focused on analyzing that whether the stock of company is over or under valued. The two most crucial ratios such as Price to Earnings (PE) ratio and Market value to Book value ratio are considered essential in this regard (Tracy, 2012). The results of ratio analysis on the financial statements of Boral Limited depict a PE ratio of 17.47 times in 2015 and 17.21 times in 2016 (Appendix). An increase in the PE ratio is considered good for the company and the investors wealth. However, in case of Boral Limited, it could be observed to be slopping slightly downwards, which is indicative of reduction in the wealth of the shareholders. Further, the market value to book value ratio was found to be 1.27 times in 2015 and 1.26 times 2016 (Appendix). There could be observed a slight downfall in the market to book value ratio of the company. The downfall in the market to book value ratio indicates that the company is not performing well in the market. Operating Revenues Prediction Report of Research and Markets has forecasted that the timber and building material supplier industry is to grow at the compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.63% per year from 2017 to 2021 (Finanznachrichten , 2016). Therefore, it can be expected that the operating revenues of Boral Limited which is a major supplier of timber and building material will rise. The CAGR of 4.63% in the timber and building material industry appears to be sustainable because of innovative products coming into the market. It is expected that the use of decking in construction of buildings will increase which will push the demand of timber and building material industry. Based on the CAGR of 4.63%, the operating revenues for the year 2020-21 have been computed as under: Presently, the company earns operating revenues of $4,311.20 million (Boral Limited, 2016). The current revenues compounded at the rate of 4.63% per annum will rise to $5,406.40 million by the end of 2020-21. Interest on Loan The interest rate computed using the interest expense and the average long term debt of the company is given below: Boral Limited A. Interest Expense ($M) 70.8 B. Average long term debt ($M) 1156.8 C. Interest rate annual (A/B) 6.12% D. Interest rate quarterly 1.53% Thus, the interest rate that would be charged on the loan will be 6.12% per annum or 1.53% quarterly. At this rate of interest, the quarterly installment of loan will be as follows: A Loan amount $300,000 B Tenure (years) 30 C Quarterly periods 120 D Quarterly rate 1.53% E PAVF 54.7898 F Installment quarterly (A/E) $5,475.47 Using the above amount of installment, the loan schedule for first ten years has been presented below: Period Opening outstanding Installment Interest Closing 1 300,000.00 5,475.47 4,590.25 299,114.78 2 299,114.78 5,475.47 4,576.70 298,216.01 3 298,216.01 5,475.47 4,562.95 297,303.49 4 297,303.49 5,475.47 4,548.99 296,377.01 5 296,377.01 5,475.47 4,534.81 295,436.35 6 295,436.35 5,475.47 4,520.42 294,481.30 7 294,481.30 5,475.47 4,505.81 293,511.64 8 293,511.64 5,475.47 4,490.97 292,527.14 9 292,527.14 5,475.47 4,475.91 291,527.57 10 291,527.57 5,475.47 4,460.61 290,512.72 11 290,512.72 5,475.47 4,445.09 289,482.33 12 289,482.33 5,475.47 4,429.32 288,436.18 13 288,436.18 5,475.47 4,413.31 287,374.02 14 287,374.02 5,475.47 4,397.06 286,295.61 15 286,295.61 5,475.47 4,380.56 285,200.70 16 285,200.70 5,475.47 4,363.81 284,089.03 17 284,089.03 5,475.47 4,346.80 282,960.36 18 282,960.36 5,475.47 4,329.53 281,814.41 19 281,814.41 5,475.47 4,311.99 280,650.94 20 280,650.94 5,475.47 4,294.19 279,469.66 21 279,469.66 5,475.47 4,276.12 278,270.30 22 278,270.30 5,475.47 4,257.77 277,052.60 23 277,052.60 5,475.47 4,239.13 275,816.26 24 275,816.26 5,475.47 4,220.22 274,561.01 25 274,561.01 5,475.47 4,201.01 273,286.55 26 273,286.55 5,475.47 4,181.51 271,992.59 27 271,992.59 5,475.47 4,161.71 270,678.83 28 270,678.83 5,475.47 4,141.61 269,344.96 29 269,344.96 5,475.47 4,121.20 267,990.69 30 267,990.69 5,475.47 4,100.48 266,615.70 31 266,615.70 5,475.47 4,079.44 265,219.67 32 265,219.67 5,475.47 4,058.08 263,802.28 33 263,802.28 5,475.47 4,036.39 262,363.20 34 262,363.20 5,475.47 4,014.37 260,902.11 35 260,902.11 5,475.47 3,992.02 259,418.65 36 259,418.65 5,475.47 3,969.32 257,912.50 37 257,912.50 5,475.47 3,946.28 256,383.31 38 256,383.31 5,475.47 3,922.88 254,830.71 39 254,830.71 5,475.47 3,899.12 253,254.36 40 253,254.36 5,475.47 3,875.00 251,653.89 It could be observed from the table shown above that the interest for the first year is $18,278.90 ($4,590.25+4,576.70+4,562.95+4,548.99). Thus, the company can claim a sum of $18,278.90 as interest in its profit and loss statement in the first year. The interest amount of the tenth year would amount to $15,643.28 ($3,946.28, 3,922.88, 3,899.12, 3,875.00). Choosing Investment Funds An evaluation of all the three options is given as below: A fund with a quoted fixed rate of 4.25% compounded semi-annually: A. Amount required to pay loan back 2,000,000.00 B. Rate annual 4.25% C. Compounded Semi annual D. Semi annual rate (B/2) 2.13% E. Terms (years) 3 F. Semi periods (E*2) 6 G. Cash required to invest $1,762,940.19 A fund with a quoted fixed rate of 4.2% compounded monthly A. Amount required to pay loan back 2,000,000.00 B. Rate annual 4.20% C. Compounded monthly D. Monthly rate (B/12) 0.35% E. Terms (years) 3 F. Monthly periods (E*12) 36 G. Cash required to invest $1,763,617.62 Zero coupon bonds maturing in three years and currently trading at $88 per $100 face value: A. Amount required 2,000,000.00 B. Face value of bond 100.00 C. No of bonds required (A/B) 20,000.00 D. Current price of bond 88.00 E. Cash required to invest (C*D) 1,760,000.00 Decision: It could be observed that the cash required for investment at present to get a sum of $2,000,000 after 3 years is lowest in the case of first option. In the case of first option, the company can arrange loan repayment of $2,000,000 by investing $1,762,940.19 today. Thus, it is advisable that the company chooses option one to make investment for arranging money in regard to loan repayment. The yield on the Australian government bond outstanding for 10 years is 2.73% (Blomberg, 2016) and the company has a spread of 570 basis points on this yield. Thus, the yield for companys bond will be 8.43% (2.73%+5.70%). In the case if the bond had been issued for shorter term than 10 years, the yield to maturity would have been lower than the current level. This is because the interest rate (coupon rate) remains higher for the short time period and as the period is enhanced, the interest rates fall downside. For example, the coupon rate on Australian government bond having term to maturity of 10 years is 4.75%, but it goes high to 5.75% if the terms to maturity of the same bond are reduced to 5 years (Blomberg, 2016). Further, there exists an inverse relationship between the coupon rate and the yield to maturity (Gitman, Juchau, and Flanagan, 2015). Thus, if the coupon rate of the bond goes up, the yield to maturity will go down. For example, the Australian government bond having 10 years to maturity has yield to maturity of 2.73%, but it goes down to 2.27% of the term to maturity are decreased to 5 years (Blomberg, 2016). The primary components that play crucial role in determination of the market interest rates are risk free rate, inflation, default risk premium, liquidity premium, and maturity premium. If it is expected that the Australian economy will do well in the upcoming years, there would be less risk of default, rising inflation, liquidity crunch, and instabilities in the market (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2016). Thus, due to less risk, the premium for risk which is added to the risk free rate in computation of market interest rate will be also be less. Therefore, it could be inferred that the spread on the companys bond would be lower if it is expected that the Australian economy will perform with stability in future (Brigham and Ehrhardt, 2016). If the predictions in regard to the Australian economy go correct, the spread of the companys bond will be decrease. Due to decrease in the spread, the yield to maturity of the bond will go down. The decrease in the yield to maturity of the bond will increase the price of the bond. Thus, the price of the companys bond will increase. This has been illustrated below: When coupon rate and Yield to maturity is same at 8.43% annual Face value 100 Terms (Semi years) 20 Coupon rate 8.43% Yield to maturity 8.43% Half yearly interest 4.22 Yield to maturity (Half yearly) 4.22% Price of bond $100.00 When coupon rate remains at 8.43% but Yield to maturity goes down by 2% Face value 100 Terms (Semi years) 20 Coupon rate 8.43% Yield to maturity 6.43% Half yearly interest 4.22 Yield to maturity (Half yearly) 3.22% Price of bond $114.59 References Blomberg. 2016. Australian Rates and Bonds. [Online]. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/markets/rates-bonds/government-bonds/australia [Accessed on: 11 January 2017]. Boral Limited. 2016. Annual report of Boral Limited. [Online]. Available at: https://www.boral.com.au/Images/common/pdfs/annual-reports/Boral-Annual-Report-2016.pdf [Accessed on: 11 January 2017]. Brigham, E.F. and Ehrhardt, M.C. 2016. Financial Management: Theory Practice. Cengage Learning. Finanznachrichten . 2016. Research and Markets- Global Timber Decking Market CAGR of 4.63%. [Online]. Available at: https://www.finanznachrichten.de/nachrichten-2016-09/38476394-research-and-markets-global-timber-decking-market-cagr-growth-of-4-63-by-2020-trends-technologies-opportunities-report-2016-2020-key-vendors-008.htm [Accessed on: 11 January 2017]. Gitman, L.J., Juchau, R., and Flanagan, J. 2015. Principles of Managerial Finance. Pearson Higher Education AU. Tracy. A. 2012. Ratio Analysis Fundamentals: How 17 Financial Ratios Can Allow You to Analyse Any Business on the Planet. RatioAnalysis.net.